The decomposition process of Coffee Bio-composite is divided into 3 main stages. Biodegradation can be understood simply as the process of breaking down organic matter under the action of microorganisms. The result of this process is CO2, Methane, water and biomass… The biodegradation process is very important to reduce waste into the environment and contribute to the protection of the green – clean environment.

What is biodegradation?

What is biodegradation of Coffee Bio-composite?
What is biodegradation of Coffee Bio-composite?

Basically, organic material is broken down through chemical breakdown processes from complex molecules into simpler molecules, eventually returning the molecules to the environment. For example, a banana peel can be broken down from cellulose to water, carbon dioxide and humus in compost.

Mechanism of biodegradation

Biodegradation Process
Biodegradation Process

The biodegradation process is divided into three main stages: fragmentation, abiotic hydrolysis and assimilation.


Fragmentation is sometimes described as surface-level degradation that alters the mechanical, physical, and chemical of material. This stage occurs when the material is exposed to abiotic factors in the outdoor environment and allows further degradation by weakening the material’s structure.

Biodegradation Process
Biodegradation Process Of Bio-plastic

Some of the abiotic factors that influence these initial changes are compression (mechanical), light, temperature, and chemicals in the environment. Although fragmentation usually occurs in the first stage of biodegradation, in some cases it can occur parallelly with biodegradation.

However, fragmentation is an undesirable process of artificial products because items will often corrode over time such as stone walls of buildings, metal corrosion, etc.

Abiotic hydrolysis

Abiotic hydrolysis of a polymer is the process in which the bonds in the polymer are splitted, creating oligomers and monomers. The steps taken to fragment these materials also vary based on the presence of oxygen in the system.

Abiotic hydrolysis in biodegradation process
Abiotic hydrolysis in biodegradation process

The decomposition of material by microorganisms in the presence of oxygen is aerobic decomposition, and the decomposition of material in the absence of oxygen is anaerobic decomposition. The key difference between these processes is that anaerobic decomposition produces methane, while aerobic decomposition does not, however both types of decomposition produce carbon dioxide, water, some kind of dregs and biomass.

Moreover, aerobic decomposition usually occurs faster than anaerobic decomposition, while anaerobic decomposition does a better job of reducing the volume and mass of the material. Because of the ability of anaerobic decomposition to reduce the mass and mass of waste materials and produce natural gas, anaerobic decomposition technology is widely used for waste management systems and as recycled energy.


Assimilation is the process of integrating products obtained from biological reactions into microbial cells. Assimilation usually occurs after the biological reaction is over.

During the assimilation phase, the products obtained from biological fragmentation are then integrated into the microbial cells. Some products from fragmentation are readily transported within the cell by membrane carriers.

Others, however, still have to undergo biotransformation reactions to produce products that can then be transported inside cells. Once inside the cell, the products enter the catabolic pathway leading to the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or elements of cell structure.

Coffee Bio-composite decompose into substances essential for plants
Coffee Bio-composite decompose into substances essential for plants

Decomposition time of Coffee Bio-composite.

All materials will eventually decompose, but not all waste decomposes in the same amount of time. Bioplastics will break down into organic components in a few months or years, not centuries or “indeterminate” like traditional petroleum-based plastics. Each type of plastic has a chemical composition and material characteristics that determine which microorganisms can consume them and, ultimately, how quickly it decomposes.

Typical example for biodegradable plastic is Coffee Bio-composite, which is made from biological materials derived from coffee grounds and starches from nature.

Products applied from Coffee Bio-composite after not being used anymore in an incubation environment (with adequate light, temperature, humidity, microorganisms…) or buried and burned will decompose into CO2, methane and biomass.

The decomposition time of Coffee bio-composite lasts from 6 months to 12 months which is extremely short when compared to traditional plastics taking more than 500 years to decompose.

Let’s take a look at the decomposition time of some materials to clearly see the environmental benefits of bioplastics in general and Coffee Bio-composite in particular.

  The decomposition time of some garbages
The decomposition time of garbage in the ground
Decompose Stock Illustrations – 983 Decompose Stock Illustrations, Vectors  & Clipart - Dreamstime
The decomposition time of garbage in the ocean

The two pictures above have shown that the wastes derived from petroleum-based plastics have a very long decomposition time. Meanwhile, the production and consumption of plastic products keeps increasing year by year which is the main cause of pollution.

Currently, “biodegradation” is the foundation and premise for many researchs to produce biodegradable products in a short time, like Bioplolymer Vietnam with Coffee Bio-composite, contributing to the production of alternative raw materials to protect the environment.

Biopolymer was orn from Vietnamese coffee beans, with a mission to protect the environment and find a way for coffee grounds. We and Coffee Bio-composite are confidently provide a source of materials with biodegradable features contributing to creating a closed ecosystem, bringing good meaning to both the environment and the future economy.

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